Patent Awards and Applications


  1. R. Langer, G. Traverso, Y. L. Kong. “Gastric Resident Electronics.” U.S. Patent 11,684,315 issued June 27, 2023.​
  2. ​​M. C. McAlpine, Y. L. Kong. “3D Printed Active Electronic Materials and Devices.” U.S. Continuation-in-part 11,239,422 B2 issued February 1, 2022.
  3. ​​M. C. McAlpine, Y. L. Kong. “3D Printed Active Electronic Materials and Devices.” U.S. Patent 9,887,356 issued February 6, 2018.
  4. M. C. McAlpine, M. Sebastian-Mannoor, Y. L. Kong, B. N. Johnson. “Multi-Functional Hybrid Devices/ Structures Using 3D Printing.” U.S. Patent 9,517,128 issued December 13, 2016.
  5. R. Langer, G. Traverso, Y. L. Kong. “Gastric Resident Electronics.” International Patent Application No. PCT/US2018/062728.
  6. P. Nadeau, D. El-Damak, D. Glettig, Y. L. Kong, N. Roxhed, R. Langer, A. P. Chandrakasan, G. Traverso. “Ingestible Power Harvesting Device, and Related Applications.” U.S. Patent Application 15/498,268.
  7. Y. L. Kong, S. Hales, J. Ho, X. Yang. “Near Field Microwave 3D Printing of Functional Devices.” International Patent Application PCT/US2023/021054.
  8. Y. L. Kong, T. E. Greenwood. “Ingestible Functional Magnetic Robot with Localized Flexibility.” U.S. Patent Application 63/359,648.
  9. Y. L. Kong, S. Ghosh. “Diffusiophoresis-Enhanced Particle Deposition for Additive Manufacturing.” U.S. Provisional Patent Application 63/579,496.

[28] Digitally-defined ultrathin transparent wireless sensor network for room-scale imperceptible ambient intelligence

Y. Jin, M. Yu, D. T. Nguyen, X. Yang, Z. Li, Z. Xiong, C. Li, Y. Liu, Y. L. Kong*, John Ho*. Nature Partner Journal (npj) Flexible Electronics 8, 10 (2024).


[27] Multi-material 3D printing guided by machine vision


[26] Diffusiophoresis-enhanced particle deposition for additive manufacturing

S. Ghosh, S. Lee, M. V. Johnson, J. Hardin, V. S. Doan, S. Shin, S. R. Kalidindi, J. Lee, J, Ault*, Y. L. Kong*. MRS Communications 13, 1053–1062 (2023).


  • Early Career Materials Researcher Award.

[25] Fractal patterns in the parameter space of a bistable Duffing oscillator

N. Hasan, T. E. Greenwood, R. G. Parker, Y. L. Kong*, P. Wang*. Physical Review E 108, L022201 (2023).



[24] Ingestible functional magnetic robot with localized flexibility (MR-LF)

T. E. Greenwood, H. Cagle, B. Pulver, O. S. Pak, Y. L. Kong*. Advanced Intelligent Systems 2200166 (2022).


[23] Needle-integrated ultrathin bioimpedance microsensor array for early detection of extravasation

R. Lin, Y. Jin, R. R. Li, C. Jiang, J. Ping, C. J. Charles, Y. L. Kong, J. S. Ho*. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 216, 114651 (2022).


[22] Digitally-embroidered liquid metal wearable wireless systems

R. Lin, H.-J. Kim, S. Achavananthadith, Z. Xiong, J. K. W. Lee, Y. L. Kong*, J. S. Ho*. Nat Commun 13, 2190 (2022).


[21] Machine learning-enabled feature classification of evaporation-driven multi-scale 3D printing

S. Ghosh, M. V. Johnson, R. Neupane, J. Hardin, J. D. Berrigan, S. R. Kalidindi, Y. L. Kong*. Flexible and Printed Electronics 7, 014011 (2022).


[20] A 3D printed self-learning three-linked sphere robot for autonomous confined space navigation

B. Elder, Z. Zou, S. Ghosh, O. Silverberg, T. E. Greenwood, E. Demir, V. S.-E. Su, O. S. Pak, Y. L. Kong*. Advanced Intelligent Systems 2170064 (2021).


[19] Inversed designed THz spectral splitters

S. Banerji, Y. Shi, V. S.-E. Su, U. Ghosh, J. Cooke, Y. L. Kong, L. Liu, B. Sensale-Rodriguez. IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 31, no. 5, 425-428 (2021).


[18] Ingestible transiently anchoring electronics for microstimulation and conductive signaling

A. Abramson, D. Dellal, Y. L. Kong, J. Zhao, Y. Gao, J. Collins, S. Tamang, A. Hayward, M. R. Frederiksen, J. J. Water, B. Jensen, N. Roxhed, R. Langer, G. Traverso. Science Advances 6, no. 35, eaaz0127 (2020).


[17] Nanomaterial patterning in 3D printing

B. Elder, R. Neupane, E. Tokita, U. Ghosh, S. Hales, Y. L. Kong*Advanced Materials 1907142 (2020).


[16] 3D printed nanomaterial-based electronic, biomedical, and bioelectronic devices

S. Hales, E. Tokita, R. Neupane, U. Ghosh, B. Elder, D. Wirthlin, Y. L. Kong*. Nanotechnology 31, 172001 (2020).


[15] Transforming military medicine with 3D printed bioelectronics

[14] 3D printed gastric resident electronics

Y. L. Kong, X. Zou, C. A. McCandler, A. R. Kirtane, S. Ning, J. Zhou, A. Abid, M. Jafari, J. Rogner, D. Minahan, J. E. Collins, S. McDonnell, C. Cleveland, T. Bensel, S. Tamang, G. Arrick, A. Gimbel, T. Hua, U. Ghosh, V. Soares, N, Wang, A. Wahane, A. Hayward, S. Zhang, B. R. Smith, R. Langer, G. Traverso. Advanced Materials Technologies 1800490 (2018).


[13] Addressing unmet clinical needs with 3D printing technologies

U. Ghosh, S. Ning, Y. Wang, Y. L. Kong*. Advanced Healthcare Materials 1800417 (2018). [HTML | PDF]


  • Top 10% most downloaded paper in Advanced Healthcare Materials the 12 months following online publication.
  • Featured in Materials Views China (2018).

[12] Transmitting location

[11] Prolonged energy harvesting for ingestible devices

P. Nadeau, D. El-Damak, D. Glettig, Y. L. Kong, S. Mo, C. Cleveland, L. Booth, N. Roxhed, R. Langer, A. P. Chandrakasan, G. Traverso. Nature Biomedical Engineering 1, 0022 (2017).


[10] Effect of the polydispersity of a colloidal drop on the drying induced stress as measured by the buckling of a floating sheet

F. Boulogne, Y. L. Kong, J. K. Nunes, H. A. Stone. Physical Review Letters 116, 238001 (2016).

[9] 3D printed bionic nanodevices

Y. L. Kong​*, M. K. Gupta, B. N. Johnson, M. C. McAlpine*. Nano Today 11, 330-350 (2016).

[8] A scalable platform for functional nanomaterials via bubble‐bursting

J. Feng, J. K. Nunes, S. Shin, J. Yan, Y. L. Kong, R. K. Prud’homme, L. N. Arnaudov, S. D. Stoyanov, H.A. Stone. Advanced Materials 28, 4047-4052 (2016).

[7] 3D printed nervous system on a chip

B. N. Johnson, K. Z. Lancaster, I. B. Hogue, F. Meng, Y. L. Kong, L. W. Enquist, M. C. McAlpine. Lab on a Chip 16, 1393-1400 (2016).

[6] Bionic graphene nanosensors

[5] Deposition of quantum dots in a capillary tube

Y. L. Kong​, F. Boulogne, H. Kim, J. K. Nunes, J. Feng, H. A. Stone. Langmuir 31, 12560-12566 (2015).

[4] 3D printed anatomical nerve regeneration pathways

B. N. Johnson, K. Z. Lancaster, G. Zhen, J. He, M. K. Gupta, Y. L. Kong, E. A. Engel, K. D. Krick, A. Ju, F. Meng, L. W. Enquist, X. Jia, M. C. McAlpine. Advanced Functional Materials 25, 6205-6217 (2015).

[3] 3D printed programmable release capsules

M. K. Gupta, F. Meng, B. N. Johnson, Y. L. Kong, L. Tian, Y-W. Yeh, N. Masters, S. Singamaneni, M. C. McAlpine. Nano Letters 15, 5321-5329 (2015).

[2] 3D printed quantum dot light-emitting diodes

Y. L. Kong, I. A. Tamargo, H. Kim, B. N. Johnson, M. K. Gupta, T.-W. Koh, H.-A. Chin, D. A. Steingart, B. P. Rand, M. C. McAlpine. Nano Letters 14, 7017-7023 (2014).


[1] 3D printed bionic ears

M. S. Mannoor, Z. Jiang, T. James, ​Y. L. Kong, K. A. Malatesta, W. O. Soboyejo, N. Verma, D. H. Gracias, M. C. McAlpine. Nano Letters 13, 2634-2639 (2013).